What is Allergy?
The immune system is a system that protects the body against foreign and harmful substances in the environment and entering the body through the nose, intestines, respiration and skin. In some cases, the immune system’s reactions to foreign and harmful substances may be excessive. This condition is known as allergy. Although the causes of allergy, in which there is a genetic predisposition, are not fully known, some allergens are an important factor in the formation of the disease. Allergens are collected in five main groups: environmental allergens (house dust mites, mold fungi, pollen, animal allergens), insect allergens, food allergens, drug allergens and occupational allergens.
What are Allergy Tests?
Allergenic substances that cause allergies are determined by blood analysis or skin tests.
Prick Test: With this allergy test applied on the skin, 20 to 30 types of allergen substances can be detected. The skin of the patient with allergy problems is scratched. Allergen substances prepared as a solution are dripped onto the scratched skin. After about 30 minutes, the substance that causes redness is considered an allergen substance.
Patch Test: It is a test used to detect allergic substances that cause eczema. Chemical substances are poured on a tape and this tape is adhered to the patient’s back and waited for 2 days. Areas of redness allow the detection of the allergen substance.
Blood Test: The blood test, which is the most effective test among the allergy test types, measures the IgE antibody rate in the blood, and this rate is 10 times higher in allergic patients than in normal people.
What are the Allergy Types?
Allergy symptoms differ depending on the type of allergy. Generally, nasal congestion, post-nasal drip, cough, sore throat, sneezing, itching and runny nose are symptoms of allergy.
Allergic Rhinitis: Allergic rhinitis, also known as summer flu, spring fever or hay fever, may occur due to pollen, house dust, some nutrients, animal hair and chemical substances. Runny nose, sneezing, dry cough, sore throat, congestion and itchy nose are symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
Allergic Asthma: Allergic asthma, in which there is a genetic predisposition, is a reaction of the lung bronchi against allergen substances and is among the respiratory tract allergies. The disease, which has symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and dry cough, is caused by mold fungus, cockroaches, pollen, house dust and animal hairs.
Allergic Conjunctivitis: The reaction of the membrane surrounding the white part of the eye, known as the conjunctiva, to allergen substances is called allergic conjunctivitis. It has symptoms such as eye watering, burning and itching.
Uriticaria: Urticaria, which manifests itself with symptoms such as itching and redness; It can occur due to eggs, tomatoes, nuts, cow’s milk and ready-made food additives, as well as allergen substances such as house dust, pollen, and insect bites. Food allergies, which are the body’s reaction to proteins in foods, give symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, itching and rash.
Atopic Dermatitis: Atopic dermatitis, a type of eczema seen in children aged 6 months to 2 years, can turn into allergic rhinitis and asthma if not treated.
Anaphylaxis: The swelling and pain in the bee sting area are known as bee allergies. This allergy can cause difficulty breathing and unconsciousness. Anaphylaxis, a dangerous type of allergy, can be fatal.